Anas Sarwar writes for LCID on the 2010 MDG Review

By Anas Sarwar, Glasgow Central MP and  member of the International Development Select Committee

If you’d like to get up to speed on progress toward the Millennium Development Goals, the International Development Select Committee’s report on the 2010 Review Summit is the ideal place to start.

Published yesterday, it provides a detailed overview of where things stand and, more importantly, where the shifting sands of global policy will take us in the lead up to the 2015 MDG deadline.

The report looks at three strands: what has been achieved so far; the summit outcomes; and what needs to be done.

Initially, I was pleased to learn that progress toward eradicating extreme poverty and hunger has been generally good – the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.8 to 1.4 billion between 1990 and 2005. 

But when I looked at the figures in greater detail I was dismayed to discover that the number of people living in extreme poverty has actually increased during that same period if the millions of people pulled out of poverty by China’s surging economy are discounted.

This is just one reason why it was so important to bring together 140 heads of state at the recent MDG Review Summit.

You see, progress toward achieving the MDGs before the 2015 deadline has been lethargic.

The select committee report describes the indifference shown by both developing and donor countries in meeting their commitments and underlines the fact that we are no closer to establishing a new international framework to succeed the MDGs post-2015. 

All the while, volatile food and financial markets, more frequent natural disasters, and climate change are restricting development progress.

The committee’s report makes a series of recommendations to DfID. Two of the central suggestions encompass my vision for the future of development: to target development assistance at building democratic institutions and tackling gender inequality.

It’s absolutely vital that DFID supports democratic institutions in developing countries so that citizens can hold government to account. To that end I have stood up in the House of Commons and demanded that our government help developing countries strengthen their tax collection systems. I have also joined charities in campaigning for the introduction of new UK legislation similar to the US Dodd-Frank Bill which improves transparency and regulation of the US financial system.  That would help to give governments in developing countries access to a more sustainable stream of finance, and it would also promote stronger governance by fostering a more accountable state-citizen relationship. It’s what the long-term success of the summit and the MDGs ultimately depends on.

It is also crucial that we develop a global approach to tackling gender inequality. It’s widely known that maternal health is directly affected by the social, cultural and economic inequalities women face based on their gender. My grandfather reminded me recently of the importance of women in society by saying: ‘educating a boy benefits one man; educating a girl benefits a family. Countering gender inequality in the developing world is the key to unlocking many MDGs.

The Labour government accomplished much after setting up the dedicated Department for International Development in 1997.

We trebled the aid budget; cancelled debt owed by the poorest countries; and cut the link between aid and commercial interest. We were the first country to sign up to the UN agreed goal to spend 0.7% of Gross National Income on development assistance by 2013; we ensured Britain became the world’s second largest bilateral humanitarian aid donor. We championed the case for development across the world and we cemented Britain’s position as the global leader. 

These are achievements we can be proud of. But if we are to stand any chance of reducing global poverty in the future it’s vital that these achievements are seen as a foundation to build on.

There is much building work to be done.

And global action to promote stronger governance and gender equality in developing countries must be the cornerstones.

Millennium Development Goals are in danger of being missed as the world prepares for UN Summit

By Margaret Dantas Araujo

The review of the Millennium Development Goals is set for this September at the UN in New York. Heads of State will gather to discuss how to proceed over the next 5 years cognizant of the reality that a concentrated effort will be needed to reach some goals while others will be missed altogether.

Although the lack of fulfilment of promises made at Gleneagles by countries to spend 0.7% GNI on aid is partially to blame, the bulk of blame lies at the devastating impacts of the financial crisis and food price shock.

The financial crisis saw developing countries’ exports and, consequently, their GDP drop, placing a strain on funding for social programs and increasing public debt. Household income also dropped as the crisis precipitated layoffs in export-oriented and temporary work, with women being most severely affected. In addition, the global food price shock, which continue to affect many developing countries, has made it difficult for households to purchase food. Both of these crises have severely slowed down progress on meeting the MDGs.

Countries will need to scale up efforts to meet the goals and increase funding if the goals are to be met. Currently a large proportion of global Overseas Development Aid is directed at middle income countries and post conflict states, Afghanistan and Iraq. The UN will call for funding to be redirected at poor and least developed countries.

Calls will also be made to complete the Doha Round of the WTO and a global climate change agreement. The Doha round, also known as the development round, would see developed countries cut their farm subsidies, enabling the agricultural sector of developing countries to compete on an equal footing. Many developing countries are already feeling the effect of climate change and an agreement to mitigate and adapt to the changing climate is needed.

Progress on the goals is mixed. For example, halving poverty by 2015 by 1990 levels will be met only by the sheer effort of the BRICS. Meanwhile, halving world hunger will be missed. Great strides have been made over the last 10 years at achieving universal primary education; currently 89% of developing world’s children are enrolled with Sub-Saharan Arica seeing an increase from 56% to 79%. Other goals such as reducing child mortality and improving maternal health will be missed altogether.

Progress has been uneven among and within countries. Middle income countries have reached their goals while the least developed countries and Sub-Saharan Africa have struggled. Within countries there is a distinct urban/rural divide, with progress strongly correlated to wealth and education.

The eight goals agreed to by world leaders in 2000 were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other disease; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership. Progress was measured using 21 targets and 60 indicators. The goals were to be reached by 2015.